Mouth cancer symptoms

Mouth cancer treatment

Mouth cancer symptoms

Mouth cancer symptoms that originate in the oral cavity The oral cavity includes the lips the gingiva or gums before the Mouth cancer symptoms the buccal mucosa which is the soft lining of the inner lips and cheeks the anterior or front 2 thirds of the town the hard palate which is the top front part of the roof of the mouth and the retromolar Trigon which the mucosa right behind the last molars on the bottom row of teeth. Behind the oral cavity is the oral pharynx. Your offerings include the soft palate which is the soft part of the roof of the mouth right behind the hard palate the walls of the throat and the past year here are back one-third of the time. The oral cavity and oropharynx are lined by epithelium and there are a few different types the first type of epithelium is called keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. These epithelial cells produce keratin a protein that makes the layer tough and protects against normal wear and tear from food and drinks. We need to have a few.

there's another layer called the basement membrane made of tough connective tissue and below that there's the lamina propria which has yet more connective tissue that houses blood vessels lymphatics nervous and immune cells. The world's surface is covered in crap nice epithelium include the hard palate the dorsal surface or top of the town and the gingiva. The second type of epithelium is the noncorrect nice stratified squamous epithelium and it contains cells that don't produce much Khariton making this layer last tough. The World services covered by noncorrect nice stratified squamous epithelium include the buccal mucosa the floor of the mouth the lateral and ventral or bottom services of the tongue the soft palate and the retro Muller Trigon. Now the mucosal tissue in the oral cavity can undergo several premalignant pathological changes. The first one of these is leukoplakia where Lugo means white in play here means a flat raised patch or plaque. And the complete yes specifically relates to a white plaque with no clear underlying costs. What causes arthritis 

These lookup like yes are usually painless but can't be easily scraped away. Now the exact cause for leukoplakia is unknown but a known risk factor is tobacco use. Early on these lesions are usually pretty fan so it's called Finley go play Kia. You can either go away on your remain unchanged or grow and become thicker at which point it's called sick leukoplakia. If it becomes bumpy it's called nodular leukoplakia. And if it becomes wart-like it's called Veruca cyclical Now the more serious form of leukoplakia is called proliferative rocks leukoplakia which usually affects women with no risk factors. And it has a predilection for gingival tissue and causes multiple rough white lesions that grow and spread and in most cases eventually it develops into squamous cell carcinoma. At the cellular level leukoplakia typically shows a thicken keratin layer. Since keratin absorbs water I think keratin where looks white when it's wet. Look up like you're my show cells have undergone some degree of dysplasia meaning that they look abnormal in some way but are not cancerous or malignant yet. Mouth cancer symptoms

However, a little plate is considered a pre-cancerous condition meaning that compared to normal tissue it's more likely to develop into cancer in the future. And that change could happen at the microscopic level meaning that the lesion might look the same on the outside even though the cells become cancerous. Generally speaking the transition from dysplastic cells to malignant cells happens gradually and as cells become more and more dysplastic lesions sometimes developed red spots and at that point, it's called your throat leukoplakia. Cells in these red areas have suffered serious damage to their DNA and don't mature normally and therefore can't produce keratin. And as they become more and more atypical the more immature becomes the epithelium it'll start becoming thinner or atrophic and a lot more of the underlying blood vessels to be seen through the mucosa.

Oral cancer stages

At that point, the regional be completely red and will be called a retro play Kia. Throw play guesses are more serious than leukoplakia. Because almost always when the removed and examined under the microscope no show severe dysplasia or early cancer. It's not a lesion that looks like the go-play Kia but isn't area frictional keratosis. That's where there's repeated physical trauma like rubbing the tooth surface against me because of the cheeks. For example after a dental procedure that leaves a rough tooth surface or broken tooth rubbing against the mucosa. It's a normal hyperplastic response meaning that the epithelial cells in the area divide more than usual and build up a protective layer of keratin. It's kind of like developing a callous on your hands after spending the weekend raking leaves. An area of frictional keratosis is not a pre-cancerous lesion and usually fades away once the irritation stops. Most of the oral cavity is lined by stratified squamous epithelium so the majority of cancers that arise are squamous cell cancers.

Mouth cancer symptoms

Squamous cell cancers arise from squamous cells that undergo genetic mutations that either activate proto-oncogenes or inactivate tumor suppressor genes. When proto-oncogenes like epidermal growth factor receptors are activated it turns them into oncogenes that promote cell division. I want more suppressor genes like the genes that encode proteins and the retinoblastoma protein is also inactivated it removes the inhibition to cell division. So together there's uncontrolled cell division which can give rise to a tumor. As the cancer cells divide they can sometimes gain the ability to penetrate through the basement membrane and at that point it's considered a malignant tumor.

The malignant cells then invade surrounding tissues like the salivary glands muscle and even get to the blood and lymphatic systems and metastasize or travel to other areas of the body. It's kind of like a toddler learning to get out of the crib and then running rampant through the house proliferative rocks leukoplakia can turn into a particular type of squamous cell cancer called Veruca carcinoma it's also sometimes called snuff dippers cancer since it's more common among users of snuff and other forms of chewing tobacco generally speaking malignant cells are irregularly shaped with darkly staining nuclei in large nuclear ally and produce abnormal keratin that looks like pearls so they're called keratin pearls.

carcinogenesis is necessary to cause oral squamous cell carcinoma. That means that more than one carcinogen or causative factor is needed to cause the disease like abusing alcohol and using tobacco. Many carcinogens come into contact with a wide area within the oral cavity and oropharynx so the idea is that they cause fuel cancer is. This means that the entire contacted area or field undergoes genetic changes and is more likely to develop cancer in the future. In addition to squamous cell carcinomas, other types of oral cancers include dental carcinoma which developing glandular cells like those of the salivary glands beneath the mucosa extranodal lymphomas which developing lymphocytes and melanomas which develop in melanocytes found all over the mucosal epithelium the most often in the hard palate.

Squamous cell carcinoma is also known to rise at the lip vermilion in those who smoke right at the location where a person holds the smoking device like a cigarette or pipe. However, most Lipper milling cancers result from chronic sun damage and are associated with actinic cheilitis a pre-cancerous rough patch in the lip. The most common location for oral cancer of the lateral and ventral surfaces of the tongue and floor of the mouth and the lower lip per 0 because it's exposed to more sun than the upper lip. Well-known risk factors for oral squamous cancer include tobacco smoking alcohol abuse chewing betel quids. radiation exposure to metal dust or chemicals like Hoxie acidic acid vitamin and mineral deficiencies like a severe form of iron deficiency called plumber Vinson syndrome and various immune deficiencies.

Oral pharyngeal cancers are strongly associated with infection by human papillomavirus type 16 but interestingly tumors of the oral cavity like the lateral tongue in Florida's mouth are not usually associated with HPV 16. The symptoms of oral cancer include numbness or changes in sensation in the mouth and throat hoarse voice pain or difficulty with chewing or swallowing and both painless and painful lumps sores or discolorations in the mouth that don't heal. Signs of pre-cancerous development include areas of leukoplakia array throw play Kia and a retro look play Kia or any other abnormal appearing tissue or masses. In other words, wider red lesions without an obvious dramatic source and have a rough irregular velvety or speckled surface are all ones to look out for. As the tumor grows some become phytic workers outward or endophytic work grows inward. Diagnosis typically includes a biopsy of the tissue because cancer has to be confirmed histologically.

A lymph node biopsy and imaging such as an X. ray CT or combination imaging like pet CT might be necessary for tumor staging. The staging system consists of tea for the primary tumor size and involvement of surrounding structures or muscles and for the number and location of involved lymph nodes and M. for metastasis which denotes whether distance spread of cancer has happened or not. Generally speaking the higher the number assigned to any of these components the higher the stage and the worse the prognosis. Well, the prognosis of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity depends largely on the tumor stage status is a main prognostic factor for squamous cell carcinoma of the oral pharynx. Treatment of pre-cancerous lesions starts with active surveillance removing any diseased tissue and stopping any causative agents like smoking and alcohol abuse.

Malignant lesions are mainly treated by surgery but some cases also require chemotherapy or radiation therapy and ideally these reasons are caught early so that they can be better managed. That's why it's important to screen for oral cancers like with a routine head and neck exam the dental office that's where it's good to look for early lesions which are often red or white plaques with an unknown because. All right as a quick recap. Oral cancer first is cancer that originates in the oral cavity which is lined by keratinized or non keratinized stratified squamous epithelia. Leukoplakia is a pre-cancerous white lesion more serious lesions include the red-colored original play Kia which almost always contain severe dysplasia early cancer. Risk factors for oral cancer include alcohol abuse tobacco smoking and using betel quid is awesome you know deficiency and nutritional deficiencies. Diagnosis includes the biopsy well treatment might include surgery chemotherapy or radiation therapy. health tips 

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