what causes gallstones

How to prevent gallstones

Health tips for what causes gallstones


what causes gallstones We need some real fatty foods like to say some delicious French fries. what causes gallstones They make their way through the stomach and into the small intestine at At this point they aren't French fries anymore but since they're high in fat they're still a little more difficult to absorb and that's where the gallbladder comes in this high-fat food stimulates the gallbladder to squeeze out some bile into the small intestine. emulsify the fat or mixes it up and make it easier to absorb. This is pretty much your gallbladders job storing concentrate bile until the time comes to send it to the small intestine it's not the most glamorous of jobs but Hey gotta start somewhere. It will take a closer look at this magical substance we get a rough breakdown that something like the following 70 percent bile salts and acids 10 percent cholesterol 5 percent phospholipids 5 percent proteins and one percent conjugated bilirubin and the rest are small amounts of other things like water electrolytes and bicarbonate. While certain assets are mostly a product of cholesterol metabolism so an acid might look something like this and its salt is the anionic form of something like this. Hypothyroidism

These acids and their salts have both hydrophobic and hydrophilic sites making them amphiphilic which helps them make cholesterol and fat and they got more soluble in bile. The phospholipids are mostly licensed in also if you feel like and also help make cholesterol and fats more soluble and bile. No gall stones are these round in solid stones you can find inside your gall bladder and they're made from the components of bile it's so they're categorized depending on what they're made of the most common ones are cholesterol stones but there's also Billy Ruben stones which are sometimes called pigmented stones. The first type as you might guess is made mostly of cholesterol that is precipitated out of the pile as a solid and formed the solid stones. He's gone for about 75 to 90 percent of cases of gallstones. This precipitation of cholesterol can happen in a couple of ways first the bile can become supersaturated with cholesterol many of the bile has so much cholesterol but the bile salts and acids or phospholipids can't hold anymore and the solution because remember that these all help make cholesterol more soluble and bile. And so the cholesterol comes out of the solution as a solid or precipitates. lung cancer

Another somewhat similar way is if you don't have enough of these bile acids or salts and phosphor lipids to help keep the cholesterol and solution so the less you have the less cholesterol can be in solution and the more precipitates out. Gallbladder status or activity has also been linked to forming stones if the file just sits there it can cause the cholesterol to separate and precipitate out is solid. Kind of like when the oil in your peanut butter jar separates from the peanuts off it's too long. Stones made of cholesterol can't be seen on. ray but rarely are the stones only cholesterol and usually, you'll see a bit of a mixed composition if they have enough calcium carbonate they might be able to be seen on X. ray remember that we said that there's a small number of electrolytes and by car but it. Well some of these electrolytes are calcium ions and calcium ions into form insoluble precipitates with bicarbonate as calcium carbonate which should be radio-opaque and visible on X. ray but usually, there's not enough calcium carbonate and the cholesterol stones will be radio Lucent on. what causes gallstones


Foods to avoid with gallstones


Health tips for what causes gallstones


and you won't be able to see them. All right so the other type of stone is a Billy Rubin or pigmented gallstone. These once again are pretty self-explanatory and are made mostly of bilirubin and therefore are pigmented. These are made when there's too much bilirubin in the pile it's combined with calcium to form the solid precipitate calcium Billy Ruben it. Sister may partly of calcium usually be radio-opaque meaning that you can see them an X. ray here's an example showing pigmented gallstones on an X. ray. Since it's the bilirubin in the bile we'd maybe assume that they're made of conjugated bilirubin right. Well, pigmented gallstones are made up of conjugated bilirubin what I thought there was only conjugated bilirubin bile. The vast majority is conjugated, but there's a small amount of unconjugated bilirubin in bile and only about one to 2 percent of the total bilirubin, which is only one percent of bile. Although the exact mechanism is unclear this tiny tiny amount of unconjugated bilirubin is thought to form from nonbacterial and nonenzymatic hydrolysis of conjugated bilirubin so through a reaction in the chemical environment of bile that doesn't involve enzymes or bacteria. Acid reflux

Okay, a quick breakdown of the structure of conjugated versus unconjugated bilirubin. The conjugated form has this group of gluconic acid that makes it water-soluble unconjugated. This age group with the PH of bile is in an anionic form that probably really likes to bind with calcium. Usually, though bile salts bind up with the calcium ions and keep them from binding with and precipitating unconjugated bilirubin. With extravascular hemolysis, we have these macrophages eating up red blood cells more than normal, and unconjugated bilirubin production is ramped upright, conjugated by the liver, and sent to the gallbladder. In these situations where there's a lot of hemolysis and unconjugated bilirubin production, there's going to eventually be more conjugated bilirubin produced right and it's thought that when there's more conjugated bilirubin in the file there's also going to be more unconjugated bilirubin to the point where I can now bind to calcium instead of these bile salts and precipitate out to form black pigmented stones. It also has brown pigmented though it's often a sign of gallbladder or biliary tract infection and often the stones have even ventured outside the gall bladder and into the bile ducts. These brown gallstones are also made out of the calcium salts of unconjugated bilirubin what's different about these though is how the unconjugated bilirubin forms

What happens is that a bacteria that causes a gall bladder infection like E. coli for example brings about hydrolytic enzymes that can hydrolyze both conjugated bilirubin and phospholipids these hydrolyze forms can combine with the calcium ions which then precipitate out to form the stones. This brown is due to this mix of unconjugated bilirubin and phospholipids. Some of the gall bladder infections are Ascaris lumber CO ids. Anklam orchestra nieces the second of which is endemic to China Korea and Vietnam so brown pigmented stones are more commonly seen in Asian populations. Also, women are typically more at risk than men because estrogen increases cholesterol stone formation which is also why the use of oral contraceptive pills that contain estrogen increases the risk of cholesterol stones. Also, obesity is often associated with increased levels of cholesterol right. Meeting that it's also associated with increased risk of cholesterol stones. Finally, rapid weight loss that decreases lipids can create an imbalance in bile composition that increases the chances of gallstone formation. Read more 

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